Adrian M. Bekarev
Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod
Galina S. Pak
Lobachevsky State University of Nizhni Novgorod
Scientific Revolutions in Three Aspects of Existence of Science
Abstract. The paper considers the changes that occur in scientific revolutions in all three aspects which science exists in. The science as a system of knowledge is the objectified knowledge or the third world of K. Popper. It is solid knowledge as the result of history. One cannot change this system, which, however, is open for new interpretations and assessments. Such creative impulse goes from science as a human endeavor. The whole demarcation of the basic aspects of the science existence is an impossible procedure; otherwise, it would not always give us an understanding of the fundamental transformations taking place in science as some fixed objectified knowledge system. Nothing has happened to the wave-particle duality – it was the Niels Bohr’s in-terpretation that produced radical changes in science. The idea he suggested seemed “mad” for his time – he introduced an operational scheme in the physical picture of reality, which directed the science evolution in a particular way. The representation of science as becoming, rather than being, enables to explore it not just as the history of ideas but also as a rivalry between schools, di-rections, and personalities; to trace the inextricable link between science and philosophy. This approach will facilitate the understanding of the science evolution as having a variety of ways, and the introduction of modal dimension into it. The study of science as a social institution looks more specific if one can trace the connections between organizational changes in science and the ongoing scientific revolutions.
Keywords: science, system of knowledge, endeavor, social institute, scientific revolution, modal dimension of science, the foundations of science, philosophy, science organization.
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