Scientific Revolutions in Three Aspects of Existence of Science

Adri­an M. Bekarev
Lobachevsky State Uni­ver­si­ty of Nizh­ni Nov­gorod

Gali­na S. Pak
Lobachevsky State Uni­ver­si­ty of Nizh­ni Nov­gorod

Sci­en­tif­ic Rev­o­lu­tions in Three Aspects of Exis­tence of Sci­ence

Abstract. The paper con­sid­ers the changes that occur in sci­en­tif­ic rev­o­lu­tions in all three aspects which sci­ence exists in. The sci­ence as a sys­tem of knowl­edge is the objec­ti­fied knowl­edge or the third world of K. Pop­per. It is sol­id knowl­edge as the result of his­to­ry. One can­not change this sys­tem, which, how­ev­er, is open for new inter­pre­ta­tions and assess­ments. Such cre­ative impulse goes from sci­ence as a human endeav­or. The whole demar­ca­tion of the basic aspects of the sci­ence exis­tence is an impos­si­ble pro­ce­dure; oth­er­wise, it would not always give us an under­stand­ing of the fun­da­men­tal trans­for­ma­tions tak­ing place in sci­ence as some fixed objec­ti­fied knowl­edge sys­tem. Noth­ing has hap­pened to the wave-par­ti­cle dual­i­ty – it was the Niels Bohr’s in-ter­pre­ta­tion that pro­duced rad­i­cal changes in sci­ence. The idea he sug­gest­ed seemed “mad” for his time – he intro­duced an oper­a­tional scheme in the phys­i­cal pic­ture of real­i­ty, which direct­ed the sci­ence evo­lu­tion in a par­tic­u­lar way. The rep­re­sen­ta­tion of sci­ence as becom­ing, rather than being, enables to explore it not just as the his­to­ry of ideas but also as a rival­ry between schools, di-rec­tions, and per­son­al­i­ties; to trace the inex­tri­ca­ble link between sci­ence and phi­los­o­phy. This approach will facil­i­tate the under­stand­ing of the sci­ence evo­lu­tion as hav­ing a vari­ety of ways, and the intro­duc­tion of modal dimen­sion into it. The study of sci­ence as a social insti­tu­tion looks more spe­cif­ic if one can trace the con­nec­tions between orga­ni­za­tion­al changes in sci­ence and the ongo­ing sci­en­tif­ic rev­o­lu­tions.

Key­words: sci­ence, sys­tem of knowl­edge, endeav­or, social insti­tute, sci­en­tif­ic rev­o­lu­tion, modal dimen­sion of sci­ence, the foun­da­tions of sci­ence, phi­los­o­phy, sci­ence orga­ni­za­tion.

DOI: 10.5840/dspl2018114


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