Liana A. Tukhvatulina
Institute of Philosophy, Russian Academy of Sciences
Breaking the Ivory Tower: On the normative model of science-politics communication
Abstract. The author analyzes the problem of the epistemological status of expert knowledge. The author believes that expert knowledge should be considered as a specific form of science-politics communication in the modern world. The author conceptualizes the foundations of the normative model of expertise, which is designed to ensure the communication of science and politics as au-tonomous social institutions. The author uses the concepts of formal and substantive rationality introduced by Max Weber to reconstruct scientific rationality. The author believes that modern society is interested in maintaining the scientific status of expert knowledge, and therefore formal rationality in science should not be “substantiated.” Comprehending the possibility of “value-neutral” expert knowledge, the author proposes the concept of “externalized” expertise. In accordance with this idea, transparency becomes the regulatory idea of expertise. Scientific experts are supposed to aggregate scientific knowledge (or report its absence) regarding the problem raised and develop possible alternatives to solve it. In turn, the choice of the optimal solution and the value consensus should be achieved through public discussion. The author believes that the “externalized” expertise helps to neutralize the threats of technocratism and populism and contributes to the development of political culture in a democratic society.
Keywords: expertise, scientific rationality, M. Weber, value freedom, formal rationality, substantive rationality, science and politics, public sphere, communication
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